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# What is Artificial Intelligence ?

This is a hard question to ask, because not even among the experts there is a complete agreement about what defines something as a real artificial intelligence.

So it can be split between acting and “thinking”, and again between humanly and rationally. Before you state that humans are rational, please look carefully to this GIF

So the combination of those aspects generate this four approaches generates:

• Acting humanly
• Thinking humanly
• Thinking rationally
• Acting rationally

## Acting humanly

By Kurzweil (1990)

The art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people.

By Rich and Knight (1991)

The study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better.

Can be considered the characteristic of a computer being able to act and pass as a human being among others. The concept that a machine can fool a human into thinking that it is really a human. As proposed by Turing in 1950, the Turing test is a way to perform this kind of assertion, if a machine can fool a group of humans into thinking that they are talking with a human, so this machine can be considered to act in a similar way to humans.

For the purpose of intelligence only, no physical interaction is needed, but for the total Turing test it is, so it can include a video or a physical construction (a robot basically) to interact with a group of humans. The actual technology is too primitive to such test be necessary, but when it happens, you can imagine a scene just like this from the Blade Runner movie:

The whole movie is good mental exercise of what a real IA would look like and all its dilemmas, they just renamed the Turing test to Voigt-Kampff test, but the essence of the test stills the same.

## Thinking humanly

By Haugeland (1985)

The exciting new effort to make computers think… machines with minds, in the full and literal sense.

By Hellman (1978)

[The automation of] activities that we associate with human thinking, activities such as decision-making, problem solving, learning …

## Thinking rationally

By Charniak and McDermott (1985)

The study of mental faculties through the use of computational models.

By Winston (1992)

The study of the computations that make it possible to perceive, reason, and act.

## Acting rationally

By Poole (1998)

Computational Intelligence is the study of the design of intelligent agents.

By Nilsson (1998)

AI… is concerned with intelligent behavior in artifacts.

# Artificial intelligent concepts and foundation

## Intelligent Agents

An agent is an autonomous entity which observes the environment and act according with it. The perception of the environment comes from their sensors and their interactions over the environment is made using actuators. So basically sensors are the agent sources of input and actuators are their output. Sometimes autonomous agents are called abstract intelligent agents (AIA).

Example of sensors:

• Camera
• Microphone
• Files
• stdin

Example of actuators:

• Speakers
• Engines
• stdout

It is really similar to the concept of input and output in any software, if you consider that stdin and stdout can be used as a sensor and actuator respectively you may notice that it is far different from something like the replicants in the Blade Runner movie, but if you take chat bots like ELIZA as example, it make sense.

In between of the input and output of any computer program there is the processing stage, so as you can expect, the same stage exists in the implementation of autonomous agents. But one aspect differs them from the normal computer programs, the agents must adapt to environment changes, it can be interpreted as the machine learning to handle these changes, or just in a reactive way change its behavior to fir the current situation (like the difficulty level in a game).

The classic way to express the agent behavior is:

$f = P^{\star} \mapsto A$

Which means, given a sequence of perceptions that an agent can perceive $P\raise0.5ex\hbox{*}$ , it is mapped to an action $A$.

By sequence of perceptions is meant the whole history of perceptions of that agent. Which means the actual action may or may not depend on the whole sequence of perceptions that this agent have perceived.

To illustrate this scenario we will study the classic example of the vacuum cleaner.

### Vacuum Cleaner example

Imagine a very limited world, composed only by two rooms and one agent, the *vacuum cleaner**.

Inside this very limited environment we have the following actions that can be executed by the agent:

• Move left
• Move right
• Clean
• Do nothing

And we have the perceptions:

• Current room (A or B)
• Room state (Clean or Dirty)

Given the above scenario, some expected actions based on the perceptions would be:

• Perception (Room=B and State=Dirty), expected action Clean.
• Perception (Room=B and State=Clean), expected action Move to Room A.
• Perception (Room=A and State=Dirty), expected action Clean.
• Perception (Room=A and State=Clean), expected action Move to Room B.

We will look further to expand the intelligence of this agent later in this post.

## Rational Agents

What means being rational ? What makes one person choices good or bad ? What makes one person smart or dumb ? That can be quite relative based on several aspects if we consider a complex scenario, like for example, autonomous cars.

Taking autonomous cars as example, not only the choices made have to be considered, but the ethics of it, check the Moral Machines website to be exposed to some moral dilemmas that AI can bring to people who create them. Like when the paramedics choose which emergency they will respond first, there is no such thing as respond everyone, the resources are limited and priorities must take place to think rationally on emergency situations, to illustrate this example consider the Emergency Service response codes. Back again about autonomous cars, consider the image bellow, which one would you rather to kill ?

In the picture, if you choose to change the car direction, all passengers will die, if you don’t, it will kill 3 homeless men and a woman.

This kind of dilemma start a whole debate about how much a life worth, and which lives matter most. Rational agents usually don’t require some thought decisions like those exposed above, but always keep in mind the ethics and responsibilities when designing agents.

## Modeling agents

When modeling agents to solve real problems the following characteristic must be focused:

• Performance, the fitness function
• Envrionment, where it will run ?
• Actuators, what inputs are available ?
• Sensors, what outputs are available ?

It is also called PEAS, it model the problem which the agent will solve.

### Determining the agent performance

Rationally thinking, what makes a choice good, not so good, neutral, bad, or terrible is called fitness function. The fitness function will determine whether or not your agent is doing a good job.

This function simplifies the real world to a simple score, that shows the performance of your agent based on the problem that it is intended to solve. In a small scenario like the vacuum cleaner robot is easy to create such function, we can summarize it in a statement like keep it clean with the least effort.

For an artificial intelligence like those presented in the movies, it can be far more complex, we can talk about happiness as being a fitness function, others can use a more collectivist point of view and consider how much someone benefits those around it as the fitness function. So the selfish robot would kill for an ice cream, while the collectivist one would throw itself in the front of a bus to stop so a random kid won’t be late for school. Both approaches sound really stupid if you look at them in this naive way, this is why the fitness function is so complex for real world scenarios.

The main point of the fitness function is to reflect the desired result in the agent behavior.

## Types Of Agents

Even agents sharing the same sensors and actuators can act very differently, based on how they were implemented, according to Norvig and Russell these agents can be categorized into five groups:

• Simple Reflex Agents
• Model Based Reflex Agents
• Goal-based agents
• Utility-based agents
• Learning agents

Autonomous agents can also present characteristics from one or more of these categories, like for example, be model-utility agents.

### Simple Reflex Agents

The most basic type of agent that can be implemented, it simply reacts to its perceptions. Also called reactive agents because of the way that they operate, just reacting to external events. Simple reflex agents acts only based on the current perception, ignoring the whole perception history.

If the vacuum cleaner robot were implemented using this agent model a pseudo-code will look like:

def agent(world):
if world.isDirty():
clean()
if world.currentRoom == 'A':
moveToRoomB()
else:
moveToRoomA()

The problem with this approach is that don’t take a lot to figure out that if the whole environment is clean, the robot will be running from room A to B and then from B to A forever.

Simple reflex agents are suitable for environments where the processing power is really limited and just reacting to simple perceptions is enough, or environments where is somehow complicated to store complex data, like in a FPGA.

### Model Based Reflex Agents

Model based reflex agents can keep track of the past perceptions using an internal model. So future actions are the result of the current perception and all the previous ones.

For example, imagine that you have to keep track where you are in world, since you have your initial position, and you know the directions that you walked, you can determine your actual position by analysing those steps. Comparing it with a simple reflex agent is simple, while the version with the internal model will store data, the simple reflex would rely on a sensor like a GPS to know it’s position.

The current cleaner environment is too small to properly demonstrate how this kind of agent works, so lets imagine a bigger environment, a 50 x 50 environment.

It is not very smart as you can see, but since it stores the internal state (current position), we can consider this agent having a model.

The full implementation can be found in this repo, but here the code of this agent:

class ReactiveCleaner(Cleaner):

def __init__(self, world):
self.down = True
super().__init__(world)

def percept(self, world, x, y):
if self.canClean():
return self.actionClean
if self.down:
if world.canGoDown():
return self.actionMoveDown
self.down = False
else:
if world.canGoUp():
return self.actionMoveUp
self.down = True
if world.canGoRight():
return self.actionMoveRight
return self.actionNothing

def isDone(self):
if self.canClean():
return False
if self.world.canGoRight():
return False
if self.down:
return not self.world.canGoDown()
else:
return not self.world.canGoUp()
return False

Basically it implement a walk through the whole environment, and if it found any dirty, it cleans. Not very smart but it get the job done.

### Goal-based agents

Goal based agents, as the name suggests, are based on goals. These goals are the target for their actions, it means, given a set of perceptions, choose the action that will be better to archive the goal.

Goal agents don’t distinguish between goal states and non-goal states, there is no between.

### Utility-based agents

These agents are more complex and elaborated, can be described as an advanced goal based agent. In utility based agents is possible to define how much you want some desired goal, so the agent can choose the best action for that situation. An utility based agent chooses the action that maximizes the expected utility of their action.

Example, imagine a game like Mortal Kombat, where you want to create an agent to fight against other players. While not being hit by the opponent is good, kill the opponent is better and make you winner of the fight (objective state). Given this scenario, considering that the opponent is near you, what is the optimal move ? An utility based agent would calculate it based on several aspects.

• If your energy level is low, and the opponent is higher, Block
• If your energy level is high, and the opponent is low, Attack

This is obviously a simplification of the current scenario, but the idea is, given that the end goal (win the fight) can be archived only if you don’t lose the fight, if your energy bar is low, better to protect yourself than risking being hit while attacking the opponent. But the opposite is also true, while

avoiding damage is a goal, it can be sacrificed by risking being hit if you have chances of winning the fight by hitting the opponent.

Suppose that we expand our previous implementation to make it a little bit smarter.

In the example above you can see the agent chasing the dirty, if it were an goal based agent, it will move to anywhere that has dirty in and clean, as said before, those agents don’t distinguish between any goal state. In this case, there is a distinction, even the goal of cleaning the environment being set, the agent chooses to clean the nearest dirty.

As said before, the whole source code is in this repository, bellow the code regarding the utility base agent:

class UtilityCleaner(Cleaner):

def __init__(self, world):
self.actions = []
super().__init__(world)

def percept(self, world, x, y):
if len(self.actions) > 0:
return self.actions.pop(-1)

if self.canClean():
return self.actionClean

e = enumerate
g = self.world.grid
dirty = [self.getMoveActions(self.x, self.y, x, y) for x,l in e(g) for y,c in e(l) if c == 1]
if dirty:
self.actions.extend(min(dirty, key=len))
return self.actions.pop(-1)

return self.actionNothing

def getMoveActions(self, cx, cy, x, y):
if cx > x:
return [self.actionMoveUp] + self.getMoveActions(cx - 1, cy, x, y)
if cx < x:
return [self.actionMoveDown] + self.getMoveActions(cx + 1, cy, x, y)

if cy > y:
return [self.actionMoveLeft] + self.getMoveActions(cx, cy - 1, x, y)
if cy < y:
return [self.actionMoveRight] + self.getMoveActions(cx, cy + 1, x, y)

return []

def isDone(self):
return self.world.isEverythingClean()

This one is a little bit smarter than the previous one, but still not smart enough, if you watch the execution you will notice that some of the dirty is left behind, then, after walking to the other side of the environment, the agent decides to get back there and remove it.

Why ? Because the agent uses the distance, and optimize its execution to focus on the nearest dirty, instead of the global approach, which would have to be done using the travelling salesman approach.

### Learning agents

As the name suggests, the learning agents can adapt to the environment where they are. Based on perceptions they change their critic of the world and their actions. The critic is the crucial ingredient creating a learning agent because it gives the required feedback to the process. Along with the critic component, there is the learning and the problem generator components.

The problem generator component element is responsible for, as the name suggest, creating problems. It may sound a little bit against the objective of an agent that is to complete a task, so why to introduce a problem ? The reason is, when you try new thing, you discover new things, just like that, the problem generator is responsible for choosing a safe or not alternative from time to time so the agent will face different challenges. And as the agent learns, it will update the agent performance element with new data, instead of choosing always the best known solution to the problem.

Imagine a poker game, where initially you don’t know the other players, but as the game goes, you know that a certain player always bluff. If that player is playing against a learning agent, at first the agent will believe in the bluff, but after some games it will learn who bluff and will change its strategies to defeat the other player (goal).

Other scenario are the adaptive adversarial NPCs in games, their objective is not defeat the player, but give the desired level of difficulty (Easy/Regular/Hard). So, if a given player keep dying, they change their strategy to keep the game interesting, while these characters fight the protagonist, is not the game goal (in this case) to make the player lose all the time, using the easy mode as an example, if the player keep dying, the internal mechanics change to a point where the enemies become weak in both energy level and skills.

# Environment

An agent can run on several kinds of environments, and those environments can be classified by their features as shown bellow.

## Fully observable x Partially observable

If the agent can observe the whole environment at once, it is fully observable, like for example, in a chess game, where the agent can see the whole board. Partially observable is when, as the name suggests, you can’t observe the whole environment at once or at all, the real world is a good example of partially observable environment.

## Deterministic x Stochastic

Given an action, what would the environment look like after that ? If the answer is precise, it means, that the next state of the environment is solely determined by the current state and the agent action, then you have a determinitic environment, if not, you have an stochastic environment.

Analysing it by the other point of view, if the environment next state is unknown, or you aren’t sure of what will happen if your agent execute an action, it is stochastic.

## Episodic x Sequential

Every experience (event) can be divided into episodes where future episodes aren’t affected by the current action (or actions). For example, an agent who is programmed to find bad apples, once it find one bad apple, it remove from the environment, but the fact of removing it won’t change how the agent or the environment will behave in the furute.

To illustrate the apple example, consider an agent to do this:

In the other hand, a sequential environment means that agent actions will change the future state of the environment.

## Discrete x Continuous

Discrete and continuous means directly if the environment changes while the agent is processing (thinking) or while the agent is executing an action. Even if the environment changes, but in a predictable way, like the clock in a chess game, it can be also considered discrete, some people may consider this environment semi-discrete.

The discrete counterpart is the continuous, also called dynamic environment. It means that the environment is changing while the agent is processing or executing an action, the best example is the real world, consider the idea of catching a fly while it is flying, since the environment is always changing, there is a big possibility that the fly moves faster and your attempt to catch it fails.

## Single agent x Multi agent

How many agents in the environment ? This is basically the question to determine which category the environment fell into. Inside this category we can also categorize the agents into:

### Communication x “Mute” agents

Agents can communicate with each other ? If so, they can share their current state, their current observations about the environment and coordinate their actions.

### Collaboration x Competition

Do agents compete against each other ? Do they work together ? For example, a chess game, is a multi agent because there are two players, in this case, even a game of a machine against a human, still a multi agent environment.

# Search methods

Search is the process to for the best sequence of actions.

Objective: states of the environment that will satisfy the goal.

Agent task: discover the sequence of actions to archive the goal.

An agent can have several ways to archive a goal, seach methods try to find the best set of actions to archive the goal based on the objective funcion.

To start solving a problem, first of all we need to define the objective, then formulate the problem and finally solve the problem.

The best solution is given by the one with the best performance, in other words, the one who score better in archiving the objective.

## Problem definition

Analyses the possibility space.

• Initial State
• Objective State (End Goal)
• Possible actions (Successor Function)
• Possibility State Space ?
• Path cost (Action cost)